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Bio-organic Fertilizer Made from Livestock and Poultry Feces

Jun. 14, 2019

Animal manure produces bio-organic fertilizer and wastewater from livestock and poultry farming. In particular, large-scale livestock farming produces a large amount of wastewater and wastewater. If not properly managed, it will cause environmental pollution around the farm, cause a large number of mosquitoes and flies to breed, and also pollute the surrounding water resources, seriously restricting the sustainable development of livestock and poultry breeding industry.

 

Livestock and poultry manure is rich in crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, minerals and calcium, phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen and other nutrients, It is the main raw material for the production of organic fertilizer with low cost and high quality.

 

For thousands of years, farmers have used various traditional methods to process organic fertilizer. However, the traditional fed Manure Fertilization has some problems, such as low fertilizer efficiency, the inadequate killing off harmful microorganisms and so on.

 

The use of bio-organic fertilizer is based on modern microbial technology, mainly animal manure, bran, peanut shell powder, crop straw and other auxiliary materials as carriers.

The fermentation-based bacteria, which has the function of decomposing organic matter with high efficiency and is composed of many beneficial microorganisms, can be mixed up with animal manure by agitation so that microorganisms can be incorporated into animal manure.

After a series of harmless treatment such as rapid heating, fermentation, decomposition, and deodorization, the bio-organic fertilizer was produced.

 

Take chicken manure as an example to introduce the technology of making bio-organic fertilizer.

 

I. The Special Efficiency of Bio-organic Fertilizer

 

Bio-organic fertilizer differs from traditional composting of livestock and poultry manure. It has the following specific functions:

 

(1) Increasing fertility and resisting diseases.

 

Bio-fertilizer contains a large number of functional bacteria such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria, potassium-dissolving bacteria, phosphorus-dissolving bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes, which can fix nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and crude protein. When they multiply rapidly, they will inhibit the survival and reproduction of harmful microorganisms, reduce the occurrence of soil-borne diseases, stimulate crop growth and improve crops. Disease resistance.

 

(2) Fertilizing soil fertility.

 

Bio-organic fertilizer contains a large number of beneficial microorganisms, which can loosen the soil, enhance soil permeability, improve soil aggregate structure, improve water and fertilizer conservation performance, and improve soil fertility.

 

(3) Improving the quality of agricultural products.

 

Bio-organic fertilizer has comprehensive nutrients and a variety of biological activities. After application, it can significantly improve the quality of agricultural products. It can be used to produce organic food and organic agricultural products, and improve the competitiveness of agricultural products in the market.

 

II. PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING BIOLOGICAL ORGANIC FERTILIZER

 

(1) Production of Mixture of Microbial Fermentation Base Strains

 

To produce bio-organic fertilizer, we need to use the bio-fermentation medium as bacteria. Here we use HM fermentation medium.

 

In order to contact chicken manure more evenly with more than 10 kinds of beneficial microorganisms, such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria, potassium-dissolving bacteria, phosphorus-dissolving bacteria, yeast, actinomycetes, Bacillus megacephalus and Bacillus subtilis in HM fermentation base, a bag of 100g HM fermentation base is divided into five equal parts, each 20 grams, and in each HM fermentation base, about 1-1.6 kg wheat bran or soybean meal is added as an auxiliary. Material, well mixed and even, we call it a mixture of bacteria. In this way, each strain mixture can ferment about 200 kilograms of chicken manure.

 

(2) Two manufacturing methods:

 

The production of bio-organic fertilizer from livestock and poultry manure can be divided into two methods: static processing and dynamic processing.

 

1. Static Processing Technology for Bio-organic Fertilizer:

 

Static processing of bio-organic fertilizer is a kind of self-made bio-organic fertilizer made by farmers in the field. It is simple, easy to operate, less investment, and suitable for the operation of small-scale farming professional households.

(1) Preparation of chicken manure and excipients

 

Choose a flat floor, no water, about 30 square meters of open space, chicken manure and accessories will be stacked separately.

 

In order to make it easy for the mixture of bacteria and chicken manure to mix evenly, we divided 1000 kg chicken manure into five equal parts. Each equal weight is about 200 kilograms.

 

Generally, granular or powdery wheat bran and peanut shell powder are used as main supplementary materials. If corn straw and cotton orange stalk are used as supplementary materials, they should be cut into 5-10 cm length first. Too long will make stirring inconvenient.

 

The purpose of adding excipients is to adjust the water content and C/N ratio of chicken manure and increase the air permeability of fermentation products.

 

(1) Construction of Fermentation Platform

 

When chicken manure and excipients are ready, a fermentation platform should be built according to the environment and the actual situation of farmers.

 

When building a fermentation platform, it is necessary to choose the place which is sunny, flat, high terrain, avoiding the tuyere and easy to operate. First, dig several parallel ventilation ditches. The width of the ditch is 30 cm, the depth is 30 cm, and the width of the ditch beam is 20 cm.

 

The branches, bamboo strips, and straw are laid across the trench beam to form a bottom ventilated fermentation platform, which is convenient for ventilation and oxygen supply. Because the beneficial bacteria in HM fermentation base belong to aerobic bacteria, only when oxygen is sufficient can fermentation be better matured?

 

With the fermentation platform built, we can proceed with the static processing of bio-organic fertilizer.

 

(1) Operation steps

 

Take a mixture of bacteria and sprinkle it evenly on the prepared chicken manure. Stir it evenly. In the mixing process, the water content of chicken manure should be adjusted to about 60%. That is to say, grasp a handful of chicken manure in your hand, hold it tightly into a ball, and there is water between your fingers, but not dripping.

 

Release your hands and disperse them with a gentle touch, so that the water content is OK. If the water content is too high, we should sprinkle wheat bran and corn straw on chicken manure to reduce the water content of chicken manure; if the water content is too low, we should add fresh chicken manure or sprinkle some water. The stirred chicken manure is piled up on the fermentation platform.

 

Four other piles of chicken manure were treated in the same way, all piled together. At this time, the height is about 1-1.2 meters, the length and width are 1.5-2 meters square, and the volume of compost is generally 1.5 cubic meters.

 

(1) Management of the fermentation process

 

In the fermentation process, temperature control is very important. The temperature is too low to reach the standard of ripening, and the compost nutrient is easy to lose if the temperature is too high.

 

The temperature inside the compost is 30 centimeters from outside to inside. Therefore, the thermometer used to measure temperature, it's metal rod should be longer than 30 centimeters, in the measurement, to insert more than 30 centimeters in the compost, in order to correctly reflect the fermentation temperature of compost.

 

Fermentation temperature and time requirements:

 

After composting, chicken manure entered the first fermentation stage. It automatically warms up to 55 C for 5 to 7 days, killing most of the parasite eggs and harmful bacteria, and reaching the standard of harmless treatment. Turn over the stack once in about three days, which is conducive to ventilation, heat dissipation, and even maturation.

 

After 7-10 days of fermentation, the temperature naturally drops below 50 C. Because some strains will lose their activity due to high temperature during the first fermentation process, the second fermentation is needed. Again add 5-8 kg of the bacterial mixture and mix well. At this time, the water content will be controlled at about 50%.

 

If you hold a handful of chicken manure in your hand, hold it tightly into a ball, the palm is wet, and there is no water seepage between fingers, indicating that the water is suitable.

 

The temperature of the second fermentation should be controlled below 50 ~C. After 10-20 days, the temperature in the compost would drop below 40 ~C, which reached the maturity standard.

 

(1) matters needing attention in fermentation process

 

In the process of making bio-organic fertilizer by static method, attention should be paid to:

 

 

Covering a layer of fine straw about 10 centimeters or spraying a layer of Superphosphate on the surface of fermentation can reduce the evaporation of ammonia and avoid the loss of nutrients.

 

If there is a strong wind in the fermentation process, the top should be covered with air permeable substances such as straw to reduce the evaporation of water and the loss of temperature.

 

Livestock and poultry manure can be stored for too long or there are more straws and weeds in the manure and fewer manure. Some rapeseed meal, urea or fresh chicken manure can be added appropriately to increase nitrogen content, increase C/N ratio, speed up fermentation and improve fertilizer quality.

 

The pH value of compost should be controlled between 5.5 and 8.5. If the pH value of compost is lower than 5.5, it is too acidic. Quick lime can be added to adjust it properly.

 

Bio-organic fertilizer should be manufactured in the open air during the rainy season to avoid excessive moisture.

 

 

If there is high water content and poor air permeability in the process of composting fermentation, several straws can be inserted in the middle of the fermentation heap to help air permeability.

 

When the color of bio-organic fertilizer turns dark brown or yellowish brown, the surface of the organic fertilizer inside the compost contains a large number of white hyphae, no raw chicken manure, maggot, odorless, and slightly ammonia odor. At this time, the bio-organic fertilizer manufactured by the static method has reached the standard of decomposition. It can be directly used as base fertilizer or topdressing fertilizer in the field.

 

The method of producing bio-organic fertilizer by small-scale static processing of chicken manure is introduced. Farmers can arrange production reasonably according to different manure sources, site size and fertilizer demand.

 

2. Dynamic Processing and Manufacturing of Bio-organic Fertilizer Technology:

 

The technology of dynamic processing and manufacturing bio-organic fertilizer is mainly suitable for large and medium-sized livestock and poultry farming enterprises to deal with livestock and poultry manure. It uses advanced technology and equipment to treat chicken manure quickly, so that it can be heated quickly, fermented and matured quickly, and produce high-efficiency bio-organic fertilizer.

 

Application of Three Biological Organic Fertilizers

 

After livestock manure bio-organic fertilizer was applied to the soil, the beneficial microorganisms in the fertilizer multiplied and decomposed rapidly in the soil, regulated the soil pH value, increased the number of beneficial microorganisms, and effectively inhibited the growth of harmful pathogenic bacteria.

 

Improving the microbial balance of crop root system in soil, promoting the absorption of nutrients by crops, making the root system of crops developed, deep roots and lush leaves, strong plants, reducing the occurrence of diseases, and improving crop yield.

 

(1) matters needing attention in use

 

It is forbidden to use all kinds of fungicides within 2-3 days before and after the application of bio-organic fertilizers. To avoid killing beneficial bacteria in bio-organic fertilizers by fungicides.

 

(2) Use method

 

1. Base Fertilizer

 

Bioorganic fertilizers are generally used as base fertilizers before the cultivation of food crops and vegetables. For example, in the cornfield, the amount of application per mu is about 100 kg, in the vegetable field, about 500 kg per mu. After spraying, plow the organic fertilizer into the ground, rake the ground flat, and then sow.

 

2. Topdressing:

 

(1) Environmentally applied: Environmentally applied generally at the age of fruit trees for more than three years. The amount of each tree is 1-1.5 kg. Several pits are dug around the drip line around the fruit trees. The depth is 10-20 cm. After application, the soil is used to cover them.

 

(2) Strip application: Strip application is usually used as topdressing beside vegetable roots, spraying about 30 kg per mu, then mixing bio-organic fertilizer and soil evenly with a rake, and then covering them with spade near crop roots.

 

The application of bio-organic fertilizer from livestock and poultry manure can change the current situation of "melon is not fragrant, fruit is not sweet, tea is tasteless" caused by the application of chemical fertilizer, so that the various indicators of agricultural products meet the standard of green food, and it is the preferred fertilizer for the production of pollution-free green agricultural products.

 

Especially in the tobacco cultivation area of our country, because maize is planted in the top stubble, maize root residues will inhibit the growth of tobacco in the next stubble crop, microorganisms in bio-organic fertilizer will decompose harmful substances secreted by maize root system to other plants or microorganisms in the soil, and solve the problem of tobacco stubble adjustment in the maize stubble field, make the root system of tobacco plant developed and improve tobacco leaves. Yield and quality.

 

Farmer friends, after reading this article, you have a preliminary understanding of the production process of bio-organic fertilizer from livestock and poultry manure. With the development of livestock and poultry industry and people's demand for pollution-free green food, the demand of bio-organic fertilizer made from livestock and poultry manure will be increasing, and the market development prospects will be considerable.

 

In addition, there is a good method for the treatment of chicken manure, that is, the use of solid-liquid separator for dehydration treatment (through Johnson separator screens for dehydration treatment, generally convenient for both fertilizer production and transportation.


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