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Method of treatment manure in Canadian farms

Dec. 20, 2018

Because of my job, I went to Canada last week, I took a company engineer to design a manure management solution(manure separation as the core) for a large farm.


The whole project was completed smoothly, and I gained a lot.

There is a consensus among all people in Canada about environmental protection. I have many friends in Canada. I have not heard of the news that farms or farms have discharged animal waste into rivers and lakes.


For the farm, how to deal with animal manure is, of course, a rule.

First of all, for the manure of cattle, sheep and other grazing animals, they are generally left on the farm for recycling treatment. The simplest way is to treat them as organic fertilizer. If it is a large farm, it can also be processed(by manure separation) into the regenerated feed.


Rare single breed farm


The daily meat food of the Canadian people is basically vegetarian animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens, and ducks. Therefore, it has not been said that a single pig can become an industry. Generally, the farm has a variety of food animals. In addition to large-scale industrial farms, there are many small and medium-sized farms in Canada. Manure separator is common on these farms.


One of my clients and their wife, a couple of immigrant couples from the Netherlands, live on small farms. The small farm has a few cows, a dozen sheep, and a hundred chickens. The farm can't recycle the garbage, they bought a manure separator .

Small farms generally use manure as fertilizer and do not need to spend a lot of money on equipment for more professional treatment. Horse manure and other parts are collected by manual or semi-mechanical tools and centralized into septic tanks.


Ensure that all manure is used


Canada's animal husbandry industry environmental management technical specifications have strict and detailed regulations on the site selection and construction of livestock and poultry farms, livestock manure storage and land use.

For example, Canada requires farms to have sufficient land to digest livestock and poultry manure within a specified area and to use it up within a certain area. If the farm does not have enough land to digest the manure, it must sign a contract with other farms to use livestock and poultry manure to ensure that all the manure produced can be used.

Since Canada's pollution control of aquaculture is dominated by the digesting and utilization of livestock manure, it is forbidden to discharge livestock and poultry farm sewage into rivers, so there is no need to spend a lot of money on sewage treatment.

In this process, the manure separation plays a very important role.


Australia farms


As we all know, Australia is known as "riding on the back of sheep" country, cattle and sheep breeding industry is very developed. Australia has the highest sheep and cattle populations in the world. Accompanied by this, many ecological problems have arisen.


The dung beetle has fewer flies

With the increase of cattle and sheep dung, flies feeding on animal dung also multiplied in large numbers. In addition, there are millions of tons of animal manure in China every year.

Under the local hot and dry climate conditions, this animal manure quickly becomes dry and hard, and the grass accumulated by cow and sheep manure will soon wither and die, which makes the green forage available for grazing less and less, and the development of animal husbandry is seriously affected. In 1967, the Australian government introduced cockroaches (dung beetles) from China to remove cow dung.

Such imported technology has been widely reported in Australian media. When I was in college, I often went to my classmate's farm to play.

Asked about the introduction of the "dung beetle", the parents of the students said that there were many flies in the past, and the "dung beetle" was much better after it came.

In fact, Australia has imported more than 20 species of dung from Asia, Europe, and Africa over the years, which has played an important role in clearing animal manure.


Wombat dung is popular in Papermaking


Nowadays, Australia has set up a Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries to manage the production, processing and marketing of animal husbandry, forestry, agriculture and fisheries throughout the country.

Australia has a large pasture, but very few workers and a very high degree of mechanization. Generally larger pastures have their own manure separators, small planes or helicopters for transportation or driving cattle and sheep. And Australia's livestock industry has a very fine division of labor. There are production and service companies specializing in the treatment of feces into fertilizers, the cultivation of pasture, the prevention of epidemics, and the optimization of varieties.

n addition, Australia also has a popular innovation in the use of animal manure: papermaking with wombat manure, a new type of paper that is popular with tourists eager to buy representative souvenirs in Australia, and even considered to help local resist the negative impact of the global financial crisis. Wombat is a herbivore that lives only in the wild in Australia.


Korea recycles manure for papermaking


South Korea is the second largest importer of meat products in Asia after Japan. The state attaches great importance to the development of domestic animal husbandry and pays attention to the scientific and technological input and management of animal husbandry. The government also pays attention to the formulation of policies and relevant laws.

From Waste to Resources

n fact, in the early days of Korea, the same illegal farms directly discharged animal manure into rivers and rivers, causing a large number of dead fish, and the stench seriously affected the lives of citizens.

Large-scale protests and demonstrations by citizens have accelerated the enactment of laws by the government. As early as 1986, the Korean government promulgated the Waste Management Law, which stipulates the standards for the treatment of livestock and poultry manure. Thereafter, in order to improve the efficiency of the treatment of livestock and poultry manure, Korea abandoned the simple classification of livestock and poultry manure as waste. In 1991, it enacted the Law on the Management of Livestock and poultry manure/wastewater, enacted separate legislation on the treatment of livestock and poultry manure, and strengthened the management of livestock and poultry manure and urine. In 1999, the amendment of the law clearly defined the resource attributes of livestock and poultry excrement and urine and accordingly formulated the policy keynote. The treatment policy of livestock and poultry excrement turned to the direction of resource utilization.

High-temperature sterilization before shipment

At present, Korea has formed an integrated process of aquaculture farm and waste disposal farm. In the aquaculture farm, different kinds of feces are classified first, and some feces which can be directly used are treated by manure separator and fermented into organic fertilizer for recovery.

For some dung that cannot be used directly, high-temperature sterilization should be done before it comes out. It should be collected in a special dunk tank. The dung can be transported by the special truck of the waste disposal plant and decomposed layer by layer. The material needed, such as the part containing a large amount of fiber precipitate, will be recovered into the paper mill for paper processing.


Combination of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry to Prevent Pollution in the United States


Recently, I read an article that states in the United States have strict regulations on the burning of agricultural waste. Now think of living in small towns in Ohio for two years, I have never seen smoke rising from farmland, nor smelled the smell of burning.

Originally, although wheat straw and other agricultural wastes belong to the project of burning allowed by the State Environmental Protection Department, there are quite strict rules and regulations on how to incinerate. If there is an incineration plan, it must apply to the EPA in advance and receive a response before it can be legally incinerated.

It is also known that the farming industry in the United States has a high degree of industrialization, specialization, and scale. Because of the strong environmental protection awareness of the United States government and the public, the United States attaches great importance to the implementation of strict anti-pollution measures in the farming industry.

In addition to legislative management, the United States also attaches great importance to the combination of agriculture and animal husbandry and the use of manure separators to solve the problem of pollution in aquaculture.

Most of the large-scale farms in the United States are agro-pastoral, and the size of the breeding industry determines the adjustment of the planting structure. There is a mutually reinforcing and coordinated relationship between aquaculture and planting in the three material economic systems of forage, feed, and fertilizer.

Animal manure from farms can be returned to farmland through pipelines or through solid liquid separator , which not only prevents environmental pollution but also improves soil fertility.


Netherlands farms


In order to prevent livestock and poultry excrement pollution, the Netherlands legislated in 1971 that it was illegal to discharge excrement directly into surface water.

Since 1984, the Netherlands has no longer allowed farmers to expand their business scale and has passed legislation requiring 2.5 livestock units per hectare. Farmers who exceed this target must pay dung fees.

In recent years, legislation is gradually stipulating the amount of livestock and poultry manure applied to land per hectare according to soil types and crop conditions. At present, large and medium-sized farms in the Netherlands are scattered in 137,000 families throughout the country, and livestock and poultry manure are basically digested by farms. Manure separator became necessary.


Denmark farms


In order to reduce the pollution of livestock and poultry dung, Denmark also stipulates the amount of dung per hectare of land and determines the maximum density index of livestock and poultry.

It is stipulated that manure applied to bare land must be plowed into the soil within 12 hours after application, and no manure should be applied on frozen or snow-covered land. The capacity of each farm to store manure should reach 9 months'output.


British farm


Livestock husbandry in Britain is far away from big cities and closely linked with agricultural production. After the treatment of the manure separator, livestock and poultry excrement is all used as fertilizer, which not only avoids environmental pollution but also improves soil fertility.

In order to adapt the livestock manure to the digestive capacity of the land, the UK restricts the establishment of large livestock farms. The maximum number of heads for a livestock farm is 200 cows, 1000 beef cattle, 500 breeding pigs, 3000 fat pigs, and 1,000 sheep. And 7000 laying hens.


German farm


Germany stipulates that livestock and poultry manure should not be discharged into groundwater or ground without treatment.

The area where the supply of the city or public drinking water is concerned, the maximum allowed the quantity of livestock allowed per hectare shall not exceed the prescribed quantity: 3 cows ~9 head, 3 horses ~9, 18 sheep, 9 pigs ~15 head, 1900 chicken ~3000 and 450 ducks.

Demand for manure separators has increased in Germany in recent years.


Japanese farm


In the 1970s, the environmental pollution caused by Japanese aquaculture industry was very serious. Since then, Japan has enacted seven laws, including the Waste Treatment and Elimination Act, the Water Pollution Prevention Act, and the Odor Prevention Act.

The prevention, control, and management of livestock and poultry pollution are clearly stipulated. For example, the Water Pollution Prevention Law stipulates sewage discharge standards for livestock and poultry farms, that is, livestock and poultry farms have reached a certain level of scale (more than 2000 pigs, more than 800 cattle and more than 2000 horses).

The discharged sewage must be treated by manure separator and meet the requirements. The Law on the Prevention of Odor stipulates that the concentration of eight pollutants in the odor produced by livestock and poultry manure shall not exceed the concentration of industrial waste gas.


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