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Apr. 17, 2019

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Why are solid liquid separator becoming more and more important for livestock farms?

Why does the solid-liquid separator for livestock farms data show that each laying hen excretes 36.4 kg of fresh chicken manure per year, and an adult chicken excretes 100 grams of fresh chicken manure per day? More and more important?


Chicken manure pollution is characterized by high water content, high stone powder content, more falling feathers, high nitrogen content, low cellulose content, and high viscosity, so it is difficult to treat.


It is estimated that a 10,000-feather hen farm can produce 365 tons of feces per year if it is calculated as producing one ton of feces per day. In large-scale chicken farms, a large amount of sewage is discharged every day, including domestic sewage and sewage from chicken production. This sewage is discharged together with manure, and the amount is far more than one ton per day.


These mixed excreta contain a large amount of high concentration of organic matter and pathogens, odor, maggots breeding, and seriously pollute the surrounding environment.


With the increasing intensive degree of the poultry industry, it is conceivable that the negative impact of manure on the surrounding environment and the difficulty of treatment of a farm with 100,000 laying hens or 500,000 broilers per year.


It is also estimated that a fattening pig has to discharge 850-1050 kg of feces and 1200-1300 kg of urine from birth to release. A 10,000 pig farm produces 30,000 tons of feces and urine a year, plus intensive production of flushing water, which produces 60-70,000 tons of wastewater a year.

Where is the way out? More and more aquaculture enterprises hope that the biotechnology technology will become more mature and the application of biotechnology products will become more simple. To this end, the author interviewed several related companies engaged in biotechnology research.

According to an expert from a company, according to the scientific definition, "matter is immortal" and "energy conservation", any substance in the world is constantly transforming in a cycle.


People eat plant fruits, animals eat roots, stems, and leaves, human and animal manure returned to the field as crop fertilizer, crops through natural fertility to achieve drug-free residues and excessive growth of heavy metals, which is the food chain law arranged by nature. The application of biotechnology products is the embodiment of this natural law.

How to use biotechnology to reduce, innocuous and resource the manure of farms?

One expert said that there are two main aspects: first, after the import (feeding) and before the export (excretion) of livestock and poultry physiological metabolic activities, biotechnology products should be involved in the digestion and absorption process of animal gastrointestinal tract, increase the conversion rate of nutrients, reduce the total amount of excreted substances and the material basis of odor and maggot breeding.


That is to say, biologicals can improve the excrement in the digestive tract of livestock and poultry so that the excrement can be partially reduced and harmless before it is excreted.


This is a good solution to the problem of animal excrement difficult to handle. Just like chicken manure, it is very difficult to treat because of its high water content. As long as this problem is solved, the efficiency of the solid liquid separator in handling chicken manure will be greatly improved.


Following the ideas of experts and the on-site interviews at the experimental sites, the author continues to explore and understand that in biotechnology, using the characteristics of organic manure itself to carry out biological fermentation is one of the feasible methods.


At present, there are compost fermentation, biogas fermentation, fermentation tank heating fermentation and so on.


However, this technology also has limitations. It is reasonable to say that the treatment and utilization of chicken manure should be the most readily available and convenient way to accumulate and ferment chicken manure in the field. In theory, when the temperature in the reactor is higher than 50 degrees, thermophilic microorganisms are gradually replaced by thermophilic bacteria living at 45-65 degrees.


So the best temperature is 55 degrees. At this time, beneficial microorganisms multiply in large quantities and are most easily decomposed into organic matter (20%-25% of the undigested nutrients in chicken manure) and transformed into nutrient humus that plants can absorb.


All kinds of pathogens, parasite eggs, and weed seeds can be killed.


Over 70 degrees, most thermophilic microorganisms die and sleep in large numbers. After composting at high temperature, the feces were brown and yellow, soft texture, no special odor, no mosquitoes, and flies.


However, the actual situation of the pig farm and chicken farm manure farm cannot achieve this ideal fermentation environment.。


If aerobic composting is used, the fermentation process can be divided into three stages: temperature rising stage, high-temperature persistence stage and temperature decreasing stage. This requires a certain area of hardening ground and roof near the chicken farm and pig farm, as well as rain and sewage diversion facilities. Because the excrement is constantly produced every day, the ample facilities and labor cannot be underestimated.


If anaerobic composting is used, it usually takes 2 to 3 months for composting to reach full maturity, with a long cycle, strong odor and insufficient decomposition of some impurities.


Facts have proved that we might as well change our way of thinking, through the solid-liquid separator to dehydrate and separate the feces, and then proceed to the next step of treatment, this method is simple and efficient.

As for the treatment of livestock and poultry manure by other methods, there are many single technologies at present, such as anaerobic fermentation, constructed wetland, etc.


However, the application effect of many technologies is not ideal because of the restriction factors such as region, seasonal climate, land and so on. For a while, it is difficult to popularize it well.


For example, high-bed fermentation is a feasible way to raise chickens, but the popularization is limited by three factors: labor intensity, cost of bedding and bacterial strain effect. Electric rake cushion can reduce labor intensity, but it has a high operating cost, large investment, and difficult maintenance.


As far as the effect of bacteria is concerned, the rapid proliferation of Bacillus requires higher temperature, especially in high temperature and humid environment in the south. During the operation of fermentation bed, the temperature will rise to 50-60 (?) or even 65 (?), and chickens will probably be exposed to heat stress when they are sitting on the bedstead.


Additionally, it is difficult to control temperature and humidity, adjust PH value, detect and supplement the number and activity of microorganisms. Some farms are limited to funds, technology, sites, and other restrictions, facilities and equipment, but the ability to absorb excrement is very weak.


For example, according to the calculation of 1 cubic meter of biogas digesters for every 3 pigs, 300 pig farms should have 90 meters of biogas digester. In fact, most of the 300 pigs in these farms only have 30 meters of biogas digesters.


Choosing a suitable and economical biotechnology model is urgently needed in the aquaculture industry, but it is a difficult problem because of many constraints and inconveniences.


As far as biological products are concerned, there are many methods and preparations, but few of them are widely used in feed factories and breeding farms with good effects, no side effects, and no residues.

At present, solid liquid separation technology is the most feasible method to deal with farm manure.

Speaking of the treatment of sewage from chicken farms and pig farms, one expert said that for a farm, the more economical and practical way is to minimize the production of sewage, such as limiting the use of large amounts of water to wash out chicken houses and pig houses, reducing surface precipitation into the dunghill and so on.


However, due to the limitation of the actual conditions, the quality, structure, layout, efficiency and service life of waste treatment facilities and equipment in many farms are unsatisfactory.


Some such as biogas equipment and safety risks and secondary pollution, maintenance difficulties and so on. If the excrement is treated by a solid liquid separator, these problems will be improved to the greatest extent.


However, using biotechnological products such as micro-ecological water purification regulators and the process flow of three-stage digestion and sedimentation tank designed by experts, chicken manure and pig manure can be filtered through the sewage tank to produce fertility water liquid, which can be used to grow and produce a large number of algae plants.


The treatment of manure in the sedimentation tank depends on the adsorption and degradation of aquatic plants. Trials have been made in some places According to the test, one ton of algae can be produced per mu of sewage area day and night.


These algae plants can be used to feed pigs and chickens. Sewage can be filtered and reused to make the sewage enter the recycling process.


In this regard, the author also has the same feeling that the reduction, harmlessness and resource utilization of manure treatment in aquaculture farms are the trend of the times.


The unpleasant gases produced by chicken feces not only pollute the air and affect the living environment, but also cause poor air quality around the chicken house. Ventilation itself is the microcirculation of bad air quality. A large number of harmful gases, such as ammonia, methane, ammonium sulfide, fecal odorant, and some pathogenic microorganisms, parasite eggs and mosquitoes and flies in the feces discharged from chicken farms and pig farms are dense. The cloth around the farm will still return to the chicken house, pigsty through the air intake.


According to industry statistics, China produces 3.8 billion tons of livestock and poultry manure annually, with a comprehensive utilization rate of only 50%. The proportion of farms using solid-liquid separators to treat manure is very low. The goal of national policy is to increase the effective utilization rate to 70%.


However, this requires a lot of capital investment and mature technical specifications and standards, so it is a very economical and feasible method to select an economical and efficient solid-liquid separator to treat feces.


Some large pig and cattle enterprises have invested a large amount of money to dispose of high-tech waste treatment equipment, which can solve the pollution problem within the limited scope of the farm.


However, because of the huge investment and the limitation of site and location, most of the small and medium-sized aquaculture enterprises do not have such conditions. Some enterprises, such as Dawu Company, use Bio-bacterial fermentation to treat feces and make organic fertilizer, but it is also used by a few enterprises.


Therefore, for the majority of the aquaculture industry, the use of waste treatment facilities and equipment, because of high investment and operation costs, high maintenance costs, technology, and experience are not rich enough, is far from universal inexpensive and efficient, can only be "looking forward to excrement sigh".


Therefore, I recommend that farmers around the world try to use solid liquid separators to treat farm manure.


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